Fowler, M., Reimer-Kirham, S., Sawatzky, R. & Johnston-Taylor, E. (eds.). (2012). Religion, religious ethics, and nursing. New York: Springer.


Sawatzky, R., Sajobi, T.T., Brahmbhatt, R., Chan, E.K.H., Lix, L.M. Zumbo, B.D. (2017). Longitudinal change in response processes: A response shift perspective. In Zumbo, B.D., Hubley, A.M. Understanding and investigating response processes in validation research. New York: Springer.

Cohen, S.R., & Sawatzky, R. (2015). Quality of life assessment in palliative care.  In Bruera, E., Higginson, I., von Gunten, C.F., & Morita, T. (Eds.), Textbook of palliative medicine and supportive care (2nd ed.) (pp. 361-370). Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Sawatzky, R., & Ratner, P. A. (2014). Medline.  In A. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of well-being quality of life (pp. 3975-3981). Dordrecht: Springer.

Thorne, S., & Sawatzky, R. (2014). Nursing. In A. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of well-being and quality of life (pp. 4399-4402). Dordrecht: Springer.

Sawatzky, R., & Terblanche, L. (2012). The measurement of religious concepts in nursing. In: M. Fowler, S. Reimer-Kirkham, R. Sawatzky, & E. Johnston-Taylor (Eds.), Religion, religious ethics, and nursing. Springer.


Sawatzky, R., Russell, L. B., Sajobi. T. T., Lix. L. M., Kopec, J. A., & Zumbo, B. D., (2017). The use of latent variable mixture models to identify invariant items in test construction. Quality of Life Research. (Online first). doi: 10.1007/s11136-017-1680-8

Kwon, J. Y. & Sawatzky, R. (2017). Examining gender-related differential item functioning of the Veterans Rand 12 Health Survey. Quality of Life Research. (Online first). doi: 10.1007/s11136-017-1638-x

Wu, X., Sawatzky, R., Hopman, W., Mayo, N., Tolulope, T. S., Juxin, L. P, . . . Lix, L. M. (2017). Latent variable mixture models to test for differential item functioning: A population-based analysis. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 15(1), 102. doi: 10.1186/s12955-017-0674-0.

Noonan, V. K., Lyddiatt, A., Ware, P., Jaglal, S. B., Riopelle, R. J., Bingham, C. O. 3rd, Figueiredo, S., Sawatzky, R., Santana, M., Bartlett, S. J., & Ahmed, S. (2017). Montreal accord on patient-reported outcomes use series - Paper 3: Patient reported outcomes (PRO) can facilitate shared decision-making and guide self- management. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.04.017

Öhlén, J., Reimer-Kirkham, S., Astle, B., Håkanson, C., Lee, J., Eriksson, M., & Sawatzky, R. (2017). Person-centred care dialectics – Inquired in the context of palliative care. Nursing Philosophy, (Online first). 10.1111/nup.12177

Goldsmith, L. J., Suryaprakash, N., Randall, E., Shum, J., MacDonald, V., Sawatzky, R., . . . Bryan, S. (2017). The importance of informational, clinical and personal support in patient experience with total knee replacement: A qualitative investigation. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 18, 127. doi:10.1186/s12891-017-1474-8

Gadermann, A. M., Sawatzky, R., Palepu, A., Hubley, A. M., Zumbo, B. D., Aubry, T., . . . Hwang, S. W. (2017). Minimal impact of response shift for SF-12 mental and physical in homeless and vulnerably housed individuals: An item-level multi-group analysis. Quality of Life research, 26(6), 1463-1472. doi:10.1007/s11136-016-1464-6

Sawatzky, R., Russell, L., Friberg, F., Pettersson, M., & Öhlén, J. (2017). Longitudinal person-centered measurement: A psychometric evaluation of the Preparedness for Colorectal Cancer Surgery Questionnaire (PCSQ). Education and Counselling, 100(5), 827-835. doi:10.1016/j.pec.2016.11.010

Reimer-Kirkham, S., Sharma, S., Grypma, S., Pesut, B., Sawatzky, R., & Wolfs, D. (2017). “The Elephant on the Table”: Religious and ethnic diversity in home health services. Ethnicity and Health. (Online first). doi: 10.1007/s10943-017-0489-7

Sinclair, S., Russell, L. B., Hack, T., Kondejewski, J., & Sawatzky. R. (2016). Measuring compassion in healthcare: A comprehensive and critical review. The Patient, (Online first). doi:10.1007/s40271-016-0209-5.

Sawatzky, R., Porterfield, P., Roberts, D., Lee, J., Liang, L., Reimer-Kirkham, S., . . . Thorne, S. (2016). Embedding a palliative approach in nursing care delivery: An integrated knowledge synthesis. Advances in Nursing Science, 40(3), 263–279. doi:10.1097/ANS.0000000000000163

Öhlén, J., Russell, L. B., Håkanson, C., Alvariza, A., Fürst, C. J., Årestedt, K., & Sawatzky, R. (2017). Variations in care quality outcomes of dying people: Latent class analysis of an adult national register population. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 51(1), 13-24. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2016.08.006

Carlsson, E., Pettersson, M., Öhlén, J., Sawatzky, R., Smith, F., & Friberg, F. (2016). Development and validation of The Preparedness for Colorectal Cancer Surgery Questionnaire: PCSQ-pre 24. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 25, 24-32. doi:10.1016/j.ejon.2016.09.002

Cohen, S. R., Sawatzky, R., Russell, L. B., Shahidi, J., Heyland, D. K., & Gadermann, A. M. (2017). Measuring the quality of life of people at the end of life: The McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire - Revised (MQOL-R). Palliative Medicine, 31(2), 120-129. doi:10.1177/0269216316659603

Ventura, F., Sawatzky, R., Öhlén, J., Karlsson, P., & Koinberg, I. (2016). Challenges of evaluating a computer-based educational programme for women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer: A randomised controlled trial. European Journal of Cancer Care, (Online first). doi:10.1111/ecc.12534

Holroyd-Leduc, J., Resin, J., Ashley, L., Barwich, D., Elliott, J., Huras, P., Légaré, F., Mahoney, M. K., Maybee, A., McNeil, H., Pullman, D., Sawatzky, R., Stolee, P., & Muscedere, J. (2016). Giving voice to older adults living with frailty and their family caregivers: Engagement in research, health care decision making, and in health policy. Research Involvement and Engagement, (2)1, 1-19. doi:10.1186/s40900-016-0038-7

Sawatzky, R., Chan, E. K. H., Zumbo, B. D., Ahmed, S., Bartlett, S. J., Bingham, C., . . . Lix, L. M. (2016). Modern perspectives of measurement validation emphasize justification of inferences based on patient reported outcome scores. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, (Online first). doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2016.12.002 

Ventura, F., Koinberg, I., Karlsson, P., Sawatzky, R., & Öhlén, J. (2016). Purposeful agency in support seeking during cancer treatment from a person-centered perspective. Global Qualitative Research, 3, 1-16. doi: 10.1177/2333393616630672

Reimer-Kirkham, S., Terblanche, L., Sawatzky, R., & Hoe Eriksen, C. (2016). Host agency perspectives on facilitating community-based clinical experiences for nursing students. Quality Advancement in Nursing Education - Avancées en formation infirmière, 2(1), article 3. doi: 10.17483/2368-6669.1048

Reimer-Kirkham, S., Sawatzky, R., Roberts, D., Cochrane, M., & Stajduhar, K. (2016). "Close to" a palliative approach: A qualitative study of nurses’ and nursing assistants’ descriptions of caring for people with advancing chronic life-limiting conditions. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25, 2189-2199. doi:10.1111/jocn.13256

Lix, L. M., Wu, X., Hopman, W., Mayo, N., Sajobi, T. T., Liu, J., . . . Sawatzky, R. (2016). Differential item functioning in the SF-36 physical functioning and mental health sub-scales: A population-based investigation in the Canadian multi-centre osteoporosis study. PLoS ONE, 11(3), e0151519. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151519

Sawatzky, R., Ratner, P. A., Kopec, J. A., Wu, A. D., & Zumbo, B. D. (2016). The accuracy of computerized adaptive testing in heterogeneous populations: A mixture item-response theory analysis. PLOS One, 11(3): e0150563. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150563

Sawatzky, R., Porterfield, P., Lee, J., Dixon, D., Lounsbury, K., Pesut, B., . . . Stajduhar, K. (2016). Conceptual foundations of a palliative approach: A knowledge synthesis. BMC Palliative Care, 15(5). doi: 10.1186/s1290401600769

Thorne, S., Roberts, D., & Sawatzky, R. (2016). Unravelling the tensions between chronic disease management and end-of-life planning. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice, 30(2), 91-103. doi: 10.1891/1541-6577.30.2.91

Ventura, F., Koinberg, I., Sawatzky, R., Karlsson P., & Öhlén, J. (2016). Exploring the person-centeredness of an innovative e-supportive system aimed at person-centered care: A prototype evaluation of the care expert. Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 34(5), 231-239. doi: 10.1097/CIN.0000000000000225

Lix, L. M., Chan, E. K. H., Sawatzky, R., Sajobi, T. T., Liu, J., Hopman, W., . . . Mayo, M. (2016). Response shift and disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease. Quality of Life Research, 25(7), 1751-1760. doi: 10.1007/s11136-015-1188-z

Andreae, C., Strömberg, A., Sawatzky, R., & Årestedt, K. (2015). Psychometric evaluation of two appetite questionnaires in patients with heart failure. Journal of Cardiac Failure, 21(12), 954-958. doi:10.1016/j.cardfail.2015.10.006

Lauck, S. B., Sawatzky, R., Johnson, J. L., Humphries, K. H., Bennett, M. T., Chakrabarti, S., . . . Ratner, P. A. (2015). Sex is associated with differences in individual trajectories of change in social health status after implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Circulation, 8, 21-30. doi: 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.114.001607

Pesut, B., Hooper, B., Robinson, C., Bottorff, J., Sawatzky, R., & Dalhuisen, M. (2015). Planning and implementation strategy for a rural palliative supportive service. Rural and Remote Health, 15, 3116,

Pesut, B., Potter, G., Stajduhar, K., Sawatzky, R., McLeod, B., & Drabot, K. (2015). Palliative approach education for rural nurses and health care workers: A mixed-method study. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 21 (3), 142-151. doi: 10.12968/ijpn.2015.21.3.142

Bryan, S., Davis, J., Broesch, J., Doyle-Waters, M. M., Lewis, S., McGrail, K., . . . Sawatzky, R. (2014). Choosing your partner for the PROM: A review of evidence on patient-reported outcome measures for use in primary and community care. Healthcare Policy, 10(2), 38-51. doi: 10.12927/hcpol.2015.24035

Henoch, I., Sawatzky, R., Falk, H., Fridh, I., Ung, E. J., Sarenmalm, E. K., . . . Falk, K. (2014). Symptom distress profile in hospitalised patients in Sweden: A point prevalence study. Research in Nursing and Health, 37(6), 512-523. doi: 10.1002/nur.21624

Ahmed, S., Sawatzky, R., Levesque, J. F., Ehrmann-Feldman, D., & Schwartz, C. E. (2014). Minimal evidence of response in the absence of a catalyst. Quality of Life Research, 23(9), 2421-2430. doi: 10.1007/s11136-014-0699-3.

Pesut, B., Sawatzky, R., Stajduhar, K. I., McLeod, B., Erbacker, L., . . . Chan, E. K. (2014). Educating nurses for palliative care: A scoping review. Journal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing16(1), 47-54. doi: 10.1097/NJH.0000000000000021

Haines-Saah, R. J., Johnson, J. L., Repta, R., Ostry, A., Young, M. L., Shoveller, J., Sawatzky, R., Greaves, L., & Ratner, P. A. (2014). The privileged normalization of marijuana use–an analysis of Canadian newspaper reporting, 1997–2007.Critical Public Health24(1), 47-61. doi: 10.1080/09581596.2013.771812

Smith, F., Carlsson, E., Kokkinakis, D., Forsberg, M., Kodeda, K., Sawatzky, R., . . . Ohlén, J. (2014). Readability, suitability and comprehensibility in patient education materials for Swedish patients with colorectal cancer undergoing elective surgery: A mixed method design. Patient education and counseling. 94(2), 202-209. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2013.10.009

Thorne, S., & Sawatzky, R. (2014). Particularizing the general: Sustaining theoretical integrity in the context of an evidence-based practice agenda. Advances in Nursing Science37(1), 5-18. doi: 10.1097/ANS.0000000000000011

Pesut, B., Hooper, B., Sawatzky, R., Robinson, C. A., Bottorff, J. L., & Dalhuisen, M. (2013). Program assessment framework for a rural palliative support service. Palliative Care: Research and Treatment, 7, 7-17. doi: 10.4137/PCRT.S11908

Schwartz, C. E., Ahmed, S., Sawatzky, R., Sajobi, T., Mayo, N., Finkelstein, J., . . . Sprangers, M. A. (2013). Guidelines for secondary analysis in search of response shift. Quality of Life Research22(10), 2663-2673. doi: 10.1007/s11136-013-0402-0

Pesut, B., Hooper, B., Sawatzky, R., Robinson, C. A., Bottorff, J. L., & Dalhuisen, M. (2013). The elusive search for quality care at end of life: Framework for a rural palliative approach supportive service. Palliative Care: Research and Treatment, 7, 7-17. doi: 10.4137/PCRT.S11908

Voth, J., Sawatzky, R., Ratner, P. A., Young, M. L., Repta, R., Haines-Saah, R., & Johnson, J.L. (2013). A computer-assisted approach to filtering large numbers of documents for media analyses. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 16(1), 13-30. doi: 10.1080/13645579.2011.645700

Reimer-Kirkham, S., Pesut, B., Sawatzky, R., Cochrane, M., & Redmond, A. (2012). Discourses of spirituality and leadership in nursing:  A mixed-methods analysis.  Journal of Nursing Management, 20(8), 1029-1038. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2834.2012.01480.x

Lix, L. M., Tolulope, T., Sawatzky, R., Liu, J., Mayo, N. E., Huang, Y., . . . Bernstein, C. N. (2013). Relative importance measures for reprioritization response shift, Quality of Life Research, 22(3), 695-703. doi: 10.1007/s11136-012-0198-3

Pesut, B., Laberge, C., Sawatzky, R., Mallinson, J., & Rush, K. (2013). Understanding the landscape: Promoting health for rural individuals after tertiary level cardiac revascularization. Journal of Rural Health 29(1), 88-96. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-0361.2012.00427.x

Sawatzky, R., Ratner, P. A., Richardson, C. G., Washburn, C., Sudmant, W., & Mirwaldt, P. (2012). Stress and depression in students: The mediating role of stress-management self-efficacy. Nursing Research, 61(1), 13-21. doi: 10.1097/NNR.0b013e31823b1440.

Sawatzky, R., Ratner, P. A., Kopec, J. A., & Zumbo, B. D. (2012). Latent variable mixture models: A promising approach for the validation of patient reported outcomes. Quality of Life Research, 21(4), 637-650. doi: 10.1007/s11136-011-9976-6.

Pesut, B., Reimer-Kirkham, S., & Sawatzky, R. (2012). Hospitable hospitals in a diverse society: From chaplains to spiritual care practitioner providers. Journal of Religion and Health, 51(3), 825-836. doi:10.1007/s10943-010-9392-1


Sawatzky, R. (2014). Consultant work for the Canadian Institutes for Health Information. A written report on an environmental scan, literature review and stakeholder interviews regarding patient-reported outcomes activities in Canada and internationally.


Sawatzky, R., Chan, E.C.K., Bryan, S., Cohen, R., Cuthbertson, L., Dixon, D., Lett, J., Gadermann, A., Hilliard, N., McGregor, M., Roberts, D., Schick-Makaroff, K., Stajduhar, K., & Tayler, C. (2015). Patient- and family-reported experience and outcome measures for use in acute care: A knowledge synthesis.

Sawatzky, R., Roberts, D., Reimer-Kirkham, S., Tayler, C., Stajduhar, K.I., & the iPANEL team (2014). Integration of a palliative approach in home, acute medical, and residential care settings: Findings from a province-wide survey. figshare.


Sawatzky, R. Research to Practice Webinar Series. (2017, Mar 21). Giving voice to older people and family caregivers: A tablet-based tool to enhance person-centred palliative care. The North Okanagan Hospice Society (NOHS) together with the UBC Okanagan Institute for Healthy Living and Chronic Disease Prevention (IHLCDP). Available from:

Sawatzky, R., & Schick-Makaroff, K. (2017, Mar 8). Partnership-based research on patient-reported outcomes in clinical practice. Lunch and Learn Series, Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing. Available from:

Sawatzky, R., & Russell, L. (2016, Apr 26-27).  An applied introduction to latent variable measurement and structural equation modelling. Two-day workshop offered at George and Fay Yee Centre for Health Care Innovation, University of Manitoba, Canada.

Sawatzky, R., & Schick-Makaroff, K. (2016, Apr).  An electronic Quality-of-life and Practice Support System (QPSS) for person-centered older adult care. Available from

Sawatzky, R., Sajobi, T.T., & Brahmbhatt, R. (2016, Jan).  Response shift: A review of the literature. Webinar presented at International Society for Quality of Life Research.  Available from

Sawatzky, R., & McLeod, B. (2015, Oct). Integrating a Quality-of-life and Practice Support System (QPSS) in palliative home care. Available from

Sawatzky, R., & Chan, E. (2015, Jul).  Patient and family reported experience and outcome measures for elderly, acute care patients. Available from,-acute-care-patients-june-8,-2015/

Sawatzky, R., Porterfield, P., & Lee, J. A. (2014, Sept).  Knowledge synthesis on a palliative approach. Available from

Sawatzky, R., Cohen, S. R., Laforest, E., Voth, J., & Stajduhar, K. (2014, September 9-12). The development and use of tablet-based quality of life assessment instruments in clinical practice. Presented at the 20th International Congress on Palliative Care, Montreal, Canada.

Sawatzky, R., & Cuthbertson, L. (2014, January).  Patient-reported outcomes and experience measures: Essential building blocks for patient-centred care. Presented at the 19th Annual Ethel Johns Nursing Research Forum, Vancouver, Canada. 

Sawatzky, R. (2014, January - 2014, May). Consultation service: Conduct environmental scan, literature review and stakeholder interviews regarding patient-reported outcomes activities in Canada and internationally for the Canadian Institute for Health Information. (CIHI) Includes contributing the planning and delivery of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Forum, held by CIHI on February 3 2015.

Sawatzky, R., & Roberts, D. (2013, Mar).  Integration of a palliative approach in hospital, residential, and homecare nursing: Results of a province-wide survey. Available from

Bryan, B., Sawatzky, R., & Korabek, B. (2013, May). Patient reported health outcomes measurement: An essential foundation for patient-centered health care delivery. Webinar presented at the IHSPR Policy Rounds, CIHR.  Available from

Bryan, S., Sawatzky, R., & the research team (2013, January). The selection and use of patient reported outcomes measures for primary healthcare reform.  Workshop presented at British Columbia Ministry of Health, Victoria, Canada.