William (Bill) Lorin Gardner, PhD

Affiliate Associate Professor of Linguistics

Bill Gardner completed his M.A. in Linguistics at the University of North Dakota, and his Ph.D. in Intercultural Studies at Fuller Theological Seminary. From 1988-2013, he worked in the Congo, Mozambique, and Kenya, doing language survey, teaching linguistics, and serving as the Country Director for SIL-Mozambique.

See: https://www.canil.ca/wordpress/u_member/dr-william-gardner-2/

  • PhD in Intercultural Studies (Fuller Theological Seminary; 2010)
  • MA in Linguistics (University of North Dakota; 1990)
  • MCS (New College for Advanced Christian Studies, Berkeley; 1983)
  • BSc in Electrical Engineering (University of California, Davis; 1979)



Phonology, morphology and orthography of Bantu languages

  • Presented paper at Phonetics and Phonology of Sub-Saharan Languages conference at Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa on “Morphophonemic alternations in the initial consonants of stems in Olunyole, a Luyia Bantu Language” (2013)
  • Dissertation: “Toward Transcultural Training in Phonological Processes for Bantu Language Mother Tongue Translators,” Pasadena: Fuller Theological Seminary (2010)
  • Member of Bantu Initiative Technical Committee, coordinated by SIL (2000)
  • Led the Ndau language survey in central Mozambique (1998)
  • Research on the phonology and orthography of the Ndau language (1995-1999)
  • Participated in the Babole language survey and led the Bomitaba survey in northern Congo (Brazzaville) (1988-1989)

Recent Publications

  • “Language Use in the Epena District of Northern Congo,” in SIL Electronic Survey Reports (http://www.sil.org/silesr/2006/silesr2006-005.pdf) (2006)
  • “An Introduction to the Phonology of New Testament Greek and Old Testament Hebrew,” in SIL-Mozambique Working Papers, Vol. 3 (2004)
  • SIL Electronic Book Review of: “Ikalanga phonetics and phonology: a synchronic and diachronic study,” by Joyce T. Mathangwane (2004)
  • “Orthography Challenges in Bantu Languages,” in Notes on Literacy, Vol. 27, #4 (2001)
  • “Consonant Mutation in Shona Languages,” in SIL-Mozambique Working Papers, Vol. 2 (2000)
  • “Toward a Theology of Translation,” in Notes on Translation, Vol. 5, #3 (1991)

Affiliations & Memberships

  • Licensed Minister with the Evangelical Covenant Church (2014)
  • Certified Linguistics Consultant with SIL Africa (2013)

  • LING 210 Language & Society
  • LING 330 Phonological Analysis
  • LING 493/593 OL Semantics & Pragmatics